Teaching effectively is an ambitious task. Teaching effectively with technology may seem even more challenging – but tempting at the same time. There is a fast growing number of teachers who believe that technology in not yet another ‘gizmo’, another irritating dubious novelty on their well established way to success in education but a genuinely revolutionary invention which opens amazing possibilities in effective (and fascinating) teaching and learning. These teachers, however, keep asking: How do I do it? How to make it work best for me? The question is: How can teachers integrate technology into their teaching successfully? What is truly needed is an ICT implementation model based on the assumption that teaching is an interaction between what teachers know and how they apply what they know in their unique classrooms. This text presents briefly one framework and two models which help introduce technology effectively into classrooms: the framework shows indispensable conditions for effective technology integration in education, and the two models, with serious theoretical background, are more practical, focusing on best ICT implementation.

  • TPACK (Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge) Framework
  • SAMR (Substitution Augmentation Modification Redefinition) Model
  • RAT (Replacement, Amplification, Transformation) Model

TPACK (Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge) Framework


TPACK shows the essential relationships which need to be understood and “linked” well to let technology work properly in education. At the heart of the TPACK framework is the complex interplay of three primary forms of knowledge: Content (CK), Pedagogy (PK), and Technology (TK). Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) is an understanding that emerges from interactions between content, pedagogy, and technology knowledge. TPACK is the basis of effective teaching with technology, requiring an understanding of the representation of concepts using technologies – pedagogical techniques that use technologies in constructive ways to teach content  (Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P., 2009). Good understanding of the TPACK framework remains essential for effective technology implementation presented in the next two models.

SAMR (Substitution Augmentation Modification Redefinition) Model

SAMR model, popularized by Dr. Ruben Puentedura, supports and enables teachers to design, develop, and infuse digital learning experiences that utilize technology. The goal is to transform learning experiences so they result in higher levels of achievement for students.

Ruben Puentedura: The goal for the teacher is to construct a simple SAMR ladder that is coupled to Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy — i.e., as the task moves from lower to upper levels of the taxonomy, it also moves from lower to upper levels of SAMR. The two Enhancement levels of SAMR (Substitution, Augmentation) are associated with the three lower levels of Bloom (Remember, Understand, Apply), while the two Transformation levels of SAMR (Modification, Redefinition) are associated with the upper levels of Bloom (Analyze, Evaluate, Create). . In turn, within each grouping a similar ordering occurs — e.g., Remember-type tasks are primarily associated with S-level uses of the technology, Understand-type tasks are associated with either S- or A-level uses of the technology, and so on. The following diagram illustrates this association:


The Substitution Augmentation Modification Redefinition Model shows how to progress through teaching and learning with technology. Ideally, the last stage (Redefinition) is the ultimate aim of effective teaching and learning with technology: this is the moment where technology is irreplaceable, the moment where brand new possibilities and tasks open for teachers and learners.

RAT (Replacement, Amplification, Transformation) Model


RAT seems to be a simpler and even more practical version of the SAMR model, a less complicated way of looking at how ICT can be integrated into a classroom context. Again, the ultimate aim is the REPLACEMENT stage. Compared to the SAMR model, it avoids the ambiguity connected with the difference between the second and third level; here the two levels are put together into one AMPLIFICATION stage.

There are numerous practical examples of different applications’ use at different stages of both SAMR and RAT models. Teachers should remember, however, that knowledge of technology is just one of the three basic elements needed for effective ICT implementation: only the complex interaction of Content (CK), Pedagogy (PK), and Technology (TK), explained in the TPACK framework will allow successful integration technology into teaching.